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NTLM Relay

NTLM Relay

NTLM relay is a technique of standing between a client and a server to perform actions on the server while impersonating the client. It can be very powerful and can be used to take control of an Active Directory domain from a black box context (no credentials). The purpose of this article is to explain NTLM relay, and to present its limits.


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Kerberoasting

Kerberoasting

With the help of previously discussed notions, we have everything in hand to explain the Kerberoasting attack principle, based on the TGS request and the SPN attributes of Active Directory accounts.


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AS_REP Roasting

AS_REP Roasting

When asking for a TGT, by default, a user has to authenticate himself to the domain controller in order to get a response. Sometimes, no authentication is asked before returning a TGT for specific account, allowing an attacker to abuse this configuration.


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Service Principal Name (SPN)

Service Principal Name (SPN)

This article focuses on SPN (Service Principal Names) in order to understand what they are and how they are used.


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Silver & Golden Tickets

Silver & Golden Tickets

Now that we have seen how Kerberos works in Active Directory, we are going to discover together the notions of Silver Ticket and Golden Ticket. To understand how they work, it is necessary to primary focus on the PAC (Privilege Attribute Certificate).


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Pass the Hash

Pass the Hash

During internal intrusion tests, lateral movement is an essential component for the auditor to seek information in order to elevate his or her privileges over the information system. The technique known as Pass the Hash is extremely used in this situation to become an administrator on a set of machines. We will detail here how this technique works.


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Extract credentials from lsass remotely

Extract credentials from lsass remotely

In corporate penetration tests, lateral movement and elevation of privilege are two fundamental concepts for advancing and gaining control of the target. There are a multitude of ways to do one or the other, but today we will present a new technique for reading the content of a lsass dump remotely, significantly reducing latency and detection during password extraction on a set of machines.


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BloodHound

BloodHound

BloodHound is a tool for visualizing an Active Directory environment as a graph. This representation then offers all the power of graph theory to unravel new attack paths that otherwise would have been difficult or impossible to detect.


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